Exercise may have different effects in the morning and evening


Researchers at the University of Copenhagen learned that the effects of exercise may vary depending on the time of day.In mice, they showed that exercise in the morning increased skeletal muscle metabolic responses, while exercise later in the day increased energy expenditure over a longer period of time.We probably all know how important healthy circadian rhythms are.Getting too little sleep can have serious health consequences.But researchers are still making new discoveries about how our body clocks affect our health.Now, researchers at the University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with researchers at the University of California, Irvine, have learned that the effects of exercise may vary depending on the time of day.Studies in mice have shown that exercise performed at the beginning of the dark/active phase in mice (corresponding to our morning) has a different effect than exercise performed at the beginning of the light/rest phase (corresponding to our evening).”There seem to be considerable differences in the effectiveness of morning and evening exercise, and these differences may be controlled by the body’s biological clock.Morning exercise turns on genetic programming in muscle cells that makes them more efficient and better able to metabolize sugar and fat.Night exercise, on the other hand, increases overall energy expenditure over a longer period of time, “said Jonas Thue Treebak, associate professor at the Novo Nordisk Foundation’s Center for Basic Metabolism Research and one of the researchers behind the study.Morning exercise isn’t Necessarily Better than evening Exercise Researchers have measured a number of effects in muscle cells, including transcriptional responses and effects on metabolites.The results showed that both regions responded much more strongly after a morning workout, possibly controlled by a central mechanism involving the protein HIF1-Alfa, which directly regulates the body’s internal clock.Morning exercise appeared to increase the ability of muscle cells to metabolize sugar and fat, an effect that interested researchers in people who were severely overweight and with type 2 diabetes.On the other hand, the results also showed that exercise in the evening increased energy expenditure in the hours after exercise.So, Jonas Thue Treebak stresses, researchers can’t necessarily conclude that morning exercise is superior to evening exercise.”Based on that, we can’t say which is best, morning or evening exercise.At this point, we can only conclude that the effects appear to be different, and we certainly need to do more work to determine the underlying mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise training at these two time points.We are eager to extend these studies to humans to determine whether timed exercise could be used as a therapeutic strategy for patients with metabolic diseases, he explained.The findings are part of several projects run by the Novo Nordisk Foundation’s Center for Basic Metabolism research, which is looking at different perspectives on how the body clock affects our health.The paper behind the new research will be published in an upcoming issue of Cell Metabolism.Read the online version here: “Effects of Exercise Time Designation on Muscle metabolic pathways and Systemic energy homeostasis.”

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